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In Type 1 Diabetes your body is unable to produce any insulin and cannot be prevented. Type 2 Diabetes is adult onset diabetes and often linked to being overweight so your body cannot produce enough insulin.

The most common symptoms of diabetes are increased thirst, weight loss, blurred vision, tiredness, frequent urination, and slow healing of wounds. Hyperglycemia is too high blood sugar. Hypoglycemia is too low blood sugar and is usually treated with a sugar drink. The treatments for a diabetic emergency are glucose liquids, glucose gels, and glucose tablets. Early treatment is very important in a medical emergency. 

In the UK, around about one in seven elderly people have diabetes. Most of these have class two diabetes. As far as the numbers are concerned, there are around about two and a half million people in the UK currently with diabetes, and this number's increasing. They reckon between now and 2025, there could be up to four million sufferers of diabetes. This is a problem.

There are two main types: Type one and type two. Type one diabetes is something you'd normally be born with. It's a problem in its insulin dependence. Type two is something that you would develop. Age onset diabetes is another word for it. What we're looking at here, is mainly the type two type diabetes. This is preventable, but only with hindsight. If you could look after yourself in your younger life, and also look after now, you could prevent type two diabetes.

How you can prevent it are things like eating correctly, well-balanced meals. Pretty sure if you're cooking on your own, sometimes this is very difficult, but well-balanced meals mixed with reduced alcohol intake, reduced smoking, or stopping smoking. But again, this is something that may be difficult. But it can reduce your chance of diabetes.

From a first aid perspective, the treatment we're giving to someone with diabetes is quite straightforward. If somebody has a diabetic emergency, we would give them some sugar. Now, a diabetic emergency, there are two levels to it: There's when there's too much sugar in their bloodstream, and also too little. If someone's got too little sugar in their blood, then by giving them sugar, can make them better, and this can cure them of the whole attack. What can happen here, if you give them sugar, and it could be a sugary drink, fruit juice, maybe a chocolate or something like that, also there are glucose gels a lot of the diabetic would carry with them.

Now, if someone has low blood sugar, these signs and symptoms will come on very, very quickly. If someone is fine, and then suddenly starts feeling unwell, it's highly likely that they have low blood sugar, so by giving them sugar, can get the balance upright. If someone has high sugar levels, then this will happen over a matter of time, maybe hours or days, where they'll start to get worse, and worse, and worse, as their sugar levels are increasing. If you're not sure which, within first aid, give them sugar. Because if it's too low, it'll help them; if it's too high, they can't do anything with sugar anyway in their body so it won't do them any harm. If in doubt, give sugar.

When the sugar levels get too high, this is an emergency call. You must dial 999. There's no way, as a first aider, or as a friend, or relative, you're going to be able to control this high level of sugar in their body. They must get to the emergency services. Even if the levels are too low and you can't control it, then again, you would call emergency services. Someone with a diabetic emergency, we can put them into the recovery position, pop a blanket over them, keep them warm, reassure them, rest them. Just be careful, if you are giving sugar to somebody, or giving food to somebody, and they're laying down. We don't want to cause them to choke.